HUD’s Office of Policy Development & Research has released two reports on energy performance in HUD-assisted housing. One report, "Energy Performance Contracting in HUD’s Public Housing Stock," looks at the effectiveness of for public housing finding the program has provided value to nine public housing agencies. The report also proposes a number of program improvements. The other report, "Assessment of ARRA Green and Energy Retrofits in HUD-Subsidized Housing," studies the impact of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding for public housing modernization and renovation, to include energy efficiency and for energy-efficiency building upgrades in multifamily housing. The study finds that across 20 public housing sites, 19 experienced energy savings; across the sites, each unit saved an average of $288 in utility costs annually. The study suggests several ways to promote resident engagement in green energy retrofits and recommends that a tailored retrofit plan be created for each property.